The Influence of the Tools of Liberalism and the Clash of Civilizations on Arabs’ Perceptions of the United States of America

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Al-Kandari, Ali
Alsaber, Ahmad
Al-Shallal, Ahmad
Dashti, Ali
Review Article
Adopting the Tools of Liberalism and Clash of Civilizations theories of internationalrelations, this study examines the perceptions of 25,406 Arabs in 11 Arab countries asexpressed in an Arab Barometer survey exploring their perceptions of violenceagainst the United States, American citizens as “good,” President Donald Trump’sforeign policy in the Middle East, increasing economic relations with the UnitedStates, and welcoming U.S. foreign aid. As aspects of the Clash of Civilizationstheory, this study examines religiosity, religious ritual practices, and politicalIslam and, as aspects of liberalism, this study explores the roles of online media aswell as perceptions about U.S. foreign aid in the prediction of the criterionvariables. The findings suggest that religious indicators, and aspects of the Clash ofCivilizations generally, were negative predictors of the perceptions, while socialmedia and motivations for U.S. foreign aid as aspects of liberalism, positivelypredicted the perceptions. The study discusses the results in relation toimplications for policy makers.