Forgiveness, revenge, and adherence to Islam as moderators for psychological wellbeing and depression among survivors of the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

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Scull, Nicholas
Journal Article
This study examined the relationships of forgiveness, desire for revenge, adherence to Islam, depression, and psychological wellbeing among 220 Muslim Kuwaiti civilians who experienced the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent seven-month occupation. Participants completed the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory-18 (TRIM), the Displaced Aggression Questionnaire (DAQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and two sub-scales of Psychological Wellbeing (PSWB). An instrument of 13 items was designed to measure adherence of Islam and the degree to which Islam informs forgiveness attitudes. RESULTS found support for the benefits of forgiveness in that interpersonal forgiveness (EFI) was negatively correlated with depression and revenge. Revenge was negatively correlated with depression and psychological wellbeing. RESULTS also indicated that Islamic forgiveness attitudes moderated the relationship between Islamic devotional practices with forgiveness of Iraqis and revenge. Increases in Islamic forgiveness attitudes led to increased forgiveness of Iraqis and decreased revenge. These findings appear to suggest that Muslim, Middle Eastern war survivors' forgiveness may be related to some beneficial psychological outcomes. Moreover, a belief that Islam is a forgiving religion appears to help facilitate the forgiveness process. Implications for research and future practice are also discussed. Keywords: Psychology, Forgiveness, Revenge, Islam, Kuwait Language: en
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