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The effect of nature-based tourism, destination attachment and property ownership on environmental-friendliness of visitors: A study in Thailand
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This study examines whether international visitors' pro-environment attitudes is enhanced by the experience of nature-based tourism, destination attachment and ownership of property at the destination. It also examines whether visitors are obstructed from exhibiting pro-environment attitudes and behaviors by situational barriers at the destination. A questionnaire survey was employed to test the hypotheses. The main sample of 300 respondents was collected in Thailand in two main tourism regions. Results from the survey indicate that destination attachment and nature-based tourism experience positively influence visitors' pro-environment attitudes, whereas ownership of property at the destination enhances their sense of attachment to the destination. “Vacation mindset” and different social norms have a negative impact on their pro-environment attitudes, while the lack of availability of “green” infrastructure, products and information negatively impact their attitudes as well as behaviors. Based on these findings, visitors' pro-environment attitudes may be enhanced by eliciting feelings of attachment to the destination and more frequent experience of nature-based tourism, while their pro-environment behaviors may be enhanced by greater provision of environmental friendly tourism products, infrastructure and information.