Implementation of distributed generation with solar panels in 132 kV substation at Layyah using ETAP
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Decentralized power generation efficaciously merges technological advances in a rapidly changing face of power networks introducing new power system components, advanced control, renewable sources, elegant communication, and web technology paving the way for the so called smart grids. Distributed generation technology lies at the intersection point of power systems, power electronics, control engineering, renewable energy, and communication systems which are not mutually exclusive subjects. Key features of renewable integration in a distribution network include loss minimization, voltage stability, power quality improvement, and low-cost consumption resulting from abundant natural resources such as solar or wind energy. In this research work, a case study has been carried out at a 132 kV grid station of Layyah, Pakistan, which has active losses, reactive losses, low power factor, low voltage on the demand side, and overloaded transformers and distribution lines. As a result, power outage issue is frequent on the consumer side. To overcome this issue, a simulation of load flow of this system is performed using the Newton-Raphson method due to its less computational time, fewer iterations, fast convergence, and independence from slack bus selection. It finds the harsh condition in which there were 23 overloaded transformers, 38 overloaded distribution lines, poor voltage profile, and low power factor at the demand side. There is a deficit of 24 MW in the whole system along with 4.58 MW active and 12.30 MVAR reactive power losses. To remove power deficiency, distributed generation using solar plants is introduced to an 11 kV distribution system with a total of 24 units with each unit having a capacity of 1 MW. Consequently, active and reactive power losses are reduced to 0.548 MW and 0.834 MVAR, respectively. Furthermore, the voltage profile improves, the power factor enhances, and the line losses reduce to a great extent. Finally, overloaded transformers and distribution lines also return to normal working conditions.