On the Discretization of Continuous-Time Chaotic Systems for Digital Implementations
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Recently, many continuous-time chaotic systems were synthesized using microcontrollers and FPGAs. This requires applying mathematical discretization to convert integration into recursion. Depending on the approximation algorithms, the speed of the numerical processors, and the number of bits used to represent data, different accuracies and stabilities could be obtained. This article explores the conditions necessary to faithfully generate signals that reflect the true behavior of the chaotic systems, while maintaining the same values for their Lya-punov exponents. This is very important for chaos control and synchronization, especially for applications in secure communication that rely on digital cryptography. The Lorenz system and the Duffing oscillator are investigated to illustrate the effect of having autonomous versus non-autonomous structures. In addition, the Nosé-Hoover dynamical model is investigated to detect the relationship between agility and numerical accuracy. The obtained results prove that identical deterministic chaotic systems can behave differently, for the same set of initial conditions, depending on the discretization algorithm. This added sensitivity necessitates careful design of the mathematical models required for digital implementations of chaotic systems. The article concludes with useful recommendations for best practices in designing, synthesizing, and implementing digital chaotic systems, while commenting on the best compromise between mathematical complexity and numerical accuracy.