CoVERS: Connected Vehicles Emergency Response System with V2I and I2I Communication
Shaikh, Palwasha Waheed
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World Health Organization (WHO), in 2018, reported that an estimated 1.35 million people die each year due to road accidents, and are the 8th leading cause of death worldwide. Many efforts have been made in the form of public policies and measures to improve road safety, conditions and behaviors, but they are largely restricted to prevention. There is an opportunity to improve the post-crash care where a delay of minutes could be a matter of life and death. Rightfully, nowadays, people are expecting more than quality and reliability from their vehicles. We are moving towards an era of connectivity where even our vehicles are not an exception. It is estimated that by 2020 over 50 billon things will be connected to the internet, and we use Wi-Fi to connect these things. The use of the limited and increasingly crowded electromagnetic spectrum is being termed as “spectrum crunch”, and a solution is being sought. Understanding that post-crash care needs to be immediate and the human component can add significant delays in initiating the process, an ITS safety application is proposed. Employing the connected vehicles communication architecture technologies like Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) and Infrastructure to Vehicle (I2V), a unique emergency response system is crafted. Since reducing accident response time can make the difference of life and death, this reduction in the overall response time is explored with the help of different communication technologies. A comparison between existing radio frequency (RF) reliant technologies like Wi-Fi and ZigBee and visible light communication technology(VLC) like Li-Fi is made in context of the proposed application. This provides an opportunity to address the spectrum crunch problem. Taking a step further, hybrids of the RF and VLC systems in the form of Wi-Fi/Li-Fi and ZigBee/ Li-Fi are also compared with the pure RF and Li-Fi systems. For the comparison to be fair, the system is carefully designed to be modular. This modularity proves beneficial by leveling the field of comparison, and paves way for a truer comparison of the communication technologies involved. The main parameters of evaluation are chosen to include latency and power efficiency, and helped in analyzing the performance of the communication system in the proposed safety critical application where low total system latency is the main objective. Hybrids RF/Li-Fi implementations fared significantly better than their standalone RF counterparts. The ZigBee/Li-Fi system achieved an impressive total system latency of 0.13ms with a power efficiency of 4.8%. Further, a proprietary low-cost unidirectional LOS Li-Fi system implementation for an Arduino UNO is also presented.